The Malling-Merton series of rootstocks (e.g., MM.106 and MM.111) were developed to be resistant to woolly apple aphid, as was the Merton 793 selection, which is commonly used in the southern hemisphere. WAA have a complex life cycle that can involve overwintering either on apple or elm. The wax and the honeydew are bothersome to pickers when it brushes off the tree and onto clothing of pickers.Â. The cornicles are circular, and only slightly elevated from the surface of the abdomen. A colony with the wax removed to reveal the live pinkish-purple aphids. Woolly apple aphid occurred on the apple trees mainly as apterous virginoparae throughout the year and showed a preference for the lower part of the canopy and the trunk. This characteristic makes this aphid species easy to distinguish from other aphid species occurring on apple. Woolly apple aphid is a sucking insect pest that weakens the tree by feeding on limbs and roots. Colonies form at wound sites on trunks, limbs, and twigs, where they feed on tender bark. Galls, or swollen enlargements, form on the plant where aphid colonies feed on twigs or roots. 30: 267-299. You, the grower, are responsible for safe pesticide use. A hover fly larva feeding on woolly apple aphids. Patch, E. M. 1912. This wax mass gives the insect its characteristic woolly appearance. Shortly after birth, the nymph is salmon colored and lacks the woolly coating. Pruning and hail damage can create the wound sites for attack by this pest. Journal of Insect Science. The use of some products may not be legal in your state or country. Environ. Hoyt, S. C., and H. F. Madsen. Many of the numerous species of woolly aphids have only one host plant species, or alternating generations on two specific hosts. Woolly apple aphid colonization on Malus cultivars. No. Baker, A. C. 1915. Apply them only to plants, animals, or sites listed on the labels. No discrimination is intended, and other pesticides with the same active ingredient may be suitable. Woolly apple aphid is a serious pest of apples, particularly young trees. The adult is reddish-brown to purple. Whereas A. mali leaves behind evidence of parasitism in the form of mummies, the important role of predators can be overlooked because they consume all or part of the colony, leaving no trace of their activities. J. Amer. In addition, milder winters may improve overwintering survival, and contribute to earlier or higher populations. These in turn mate and the females lay eggs which overwinter on elm. Hilgardia. The Geneva series of apple rootstocks from Cornell: performance, disease resistance and commercialization. Organophosphates have been replaced by other groups of pesticides (including IGRs, neonicotinoids, and other novel modes of action), which have little or no toxicity to woolly apple aphid, but may be equally toxic to its natural enemies. An effective pesticide can be applied at any time during the season when populations increase. Hortic. In severe winters above-ground colonies may be killed. Reprint articles with permission must include: Originally published by Washington State Tree Fruit Extension Fruit Matters at treefruit.wsu.edu and a link to the original article. The original primary (or overwintering) host of the woolly apple aphid is American elm. It is too easy to miss the obvious. Chemical controls can be applied either proactively or reactively. Woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum, WAA) is native to eastern North America but now occurs on apple throughout the world.Young WAA nymphs have purple bodies covered with powdery gray wax. Yellowish foliage is a sign that woolly apple aphid may be infesting roots. However, woolly aphids, which are green or blue, also appear fuzzy due to the white, waxy material that covers their body. Deng JiaQi, Rui GuangSheng, Guan YuTian, Yu YingQun, Zhang DongMin, Hong JianYuan, 1993. Trade (brand) names are provided for your reference only. 106: 26-30. Woolly apple aphid, Erisoma lanigerum(Hausmann), is native to North America and found in all apple growing areas in the United States and Canada. 101, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Aphid forms inhabiting above-ground parts of the apple tree are most common in mid-summer and fall. Once on apple … 2. Woolly apple aphid (WAA) has become more common over the past few years and is a quarantine threat for export to certain countries. Woolly apple aphids are showing up in the warmer areas of the Wasatch Front. DOI: 10.1603/EN09280. Continued feeding can kill roots and cause reduced growth or even death of young trees. Roots of infested trees have large, abnormal swellings. Once started, these galls increase in size from year to year as a result of aphid feeding. The woolly apple aphid reproduces sexually and asexually, and sexual reproduction requires both American elm and apple (or similar) trees. The aerial colonies can be found in several locations on the tree, but shoots and watersprouts are favored locations. Winged females dispersing to elm give live birth to wingless males and females. Recent research and industry experience has indicated that outbreaks are consistently associated with the use of certain codling moth materials such as Rimon (novaluron) and Delegate (spinetoram). Figure 3. 859-257-4772, Students   /   However, woolly apple aphid has adapted to live and reproduce asexually on apple year-round in most fruit growing areas of the world (where the American elm does not occur), including the western United States. Woolly aphid is usually easy to spot; Between spring and early autumn, infested parts of the trunk and branches are covered with a fluffy white waxy material. 1. Elm leaf curl and woolly apple aphid. Woolly apple aphid Eriosoma lanigerum Order Hemiptera, Family Aphididae; aphids or plant lice Native pest Host plants: Apple is preferred, but elm, hawthorn, mountainash, and pear are also susceptible. Preferred feeding sites during the summer are leaf axils on terminal shoots. There are no insecticides to control root infestations on bearing apple trees. I have sprayed with a … Soc. Woolly apple aphids are attracted to sunken areas caused by the disease perennial canker. During the summer, repeated woolly apple aphids generations of wingless individuals are produced. Description: Adult aphids are approximately 1.5 mm long and … It is a true bug and sucks sap from plants. The woolly mass will often be seen on the spurs or branches that have been pruned as well as within cracks in the bark. The latter is considered an important predator of woolly apple aphid in Washington and worldwide. While the causes for this can only be speculative, reducing the use of specific organophosphates in the delayed-dormant and mid-late summer (2nd generation codling moth) are plausible explanations. Dean The woolly apple aphid may occur on the above-ground portions or roots of the apple tree. Woolly apple aphid is a serious pest of apples, particularly young trees. It is a violation of the law to disregard label directions. This wax mass gives the insect its characteristic woolly appearance (fig. Rept. 2010. Some apple varieties, such as Northern Spy, are resistant to this pest. Winged adults (alates) are normally the form that would migrate back to the overwintering host (elm) in the fall. Therefore colonies of this aphid appear as cotton and at first glance can be confused with a fungal disease. It is important to scout your own trees to determine when and if a treatment is needed. No endorsement is implied. 2003. Cummins, J. N., P. L. Forsline, and J. D. Mackenzie. Much like other types of aphids, these sap-sucking insect pests are small (1/4 inch). They are brown or greyish-purple in colour, although this is usually masked by the wax. Woolly apple aphid overwinters as a nymph on the roots of apple. Overwintering colonies are usually found in old pruning scars, although some survival has been recorded on shoot galls from the previous year’s infestation. This aphid excretes honeydew on leaves and fruit that favors the growth of sooty mold. Subterranean aphid colonies cause the most damage. 5. When mixing and applying pesticides, follow all label precautions to protect yourself and others around you. Extension   /   Woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum Hausmann) has been recognized as a pest of apple (Malus domestica Borkhausen) since the 1840s (Walsh and Riley 1869) and likely much earlier than this (Theobald 1921).It originated in eastern North America and has since spread to the apple-growing regions of the world (Blackman and Eastop 2000).Its life cycle was first described as … WAA infests both the shoot and root parts of the apple tree (Gurney, 1926; Lloyd, 1961). These are not very noticeable after one year of feeding but increase in size as feeding continues in an area. In areas where this species of elm occurs, elm is the overwintering host, and apple is one of several summer (or alternate) hosts. Egg-laying wounds by … 3. Woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann), has been a pest of apple orchards in Washington State for over 100 yr, but since ≈2000, there has been an increase in the incidence and severity of outbreaks (S.D.C., personal communication). The most resistant, commonly available rootstock is MM106. Rootstocks vary in susceptibility to woolly apple aphid and susceptible rootstocks will form galls around the infestation sites. The same should be true of the Geneva rootstocks. Pruning and hail damage can create the wound sites for attack by this pest. The woolly apple aphid causes the formation of nodules on the woody parts of trees and roots (D). Woolly apple aphids infest roots, trunks, limbs, shoots, and occasionally fruit of apple trees. A specific inspection for this pest should be made. Egg-laying wounds by the periodical cicada are ideal sites for infestation. Woolly apple aphid www.hortipendium.de. This aphid, native to North America, was identified in the United States in 1842. Pruning and hail damage can create the wound sites for attack by this pest. These galls are more sensitive to low temperatures than normal bark tissue and rupture at about 0ºF or colder, providing an entry site for the fungus, continuing the perennial nature of the canker. It gets its name from the woolly appearance of its colonies. Store pesticides in their original containers and keep them out of the reach of children, pets, and livestock. Aphid feeding on the root systems also disrupts the nutrient balance of root tissue, which can affect growth of other parts of the tree. Honeydew produced by the woolly apple aphid can drip onto the fruit resulting in sooty mold and downgrading of fruit because of blackened or russeted areas. Eriosoma lanigerum, the woolly apple aphid, woolly aphid or American blight, is an aphid in the superfamily Aphidoidea in the order Hemiptera. The more sedentary predators (syrphid larvae) are the easiest to find in aphid colonies; however, more mobile predators also have an impact, and nocturnal predators such as the European earwig may go unnoticed. Use of resistant apple rootstocks recommended. ENTFACT-219: Woolly Apple Aphid  |  Download PDF. Bull. During the era predominated by organophosphate use, it was not considered a serious pest, or at least one that was easily controlled. Elm trees in the vicinity of orchards increase the migration of the aphid to apple trees. Besides apples, other hosts include pear, hawthorn, mountain ash and elm. The aphid is collected by beating and this can indicate when low populations are present which have otherwise been missed. Woolly apple aphid Eriosoma lanigerum Hausmann ecology and its relationship with climatic variables and natural enemies in Mediterranean areas - Volume 105 Issue 1 - Jaume Lordan, Simó Alegre, Ferran Gatius, M. José Sarasúa, Georgina Alins Soap is a natural bug killer for plants since the solution kills insects without killing the plants. The presence of colonies on the current year’s extension growth is the critical factor an… There is a persistent speculation that the winged forms may form part of the dispersal mechanism to other apple trees, but the meager evidence on this subject indicates that egg production on apple is rare, and the eggs fail to hatch. The nymphs often form large cottony masses on twigs, for protection from predators. It is probably of North American origin and has been distributed to other parts of the world mainly via infested apple rootstocks. CAUTION! Pesticide recommendations in this publication are registered for use in Kentucky, USA ONLY! Colonies form at wound sites on trunks, limbs, and twigs, where they feed on tender bark. At low infestations, the aphid is confined to the trunk and large branches but disperses to establish colonies on twigs or new lateral growths during peak populations. 2005. It is now distributed throughout the apple growing regions of the world where its importance as a pest varies. Woolly apple aphid (WAA), Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann) (Homoptera: Aphididae) is an important insect that infests apple orchards worldwide (Ateyyat & Al-Antary, 2009), and is considered to be critical to the economics of the apple industry (Bus et al., 2007). by Elizabeth H. Beers, Stanley C. Hoyt, and Michael J. Willett, originally published 1993; revised March 2010 E. Beers; and June 2019 Robert J. Orpet. 622: 512-520. Attacks apple and pear. There are few insecticides specifically labeled for control of woolly apple aphid. Research   /   Preventing woolly aphids have only one host plant species, or swollen enlargements on roots and cause growth! 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